Information about the world of Optics and Optometry


What is Optics?

Branch of Physics dedicated to the study of light: Origin, propagation, detection, and effects.


In this study, the concept of ray (geometric optics) or the concept of wave (electromagnetic waves) can be used.


It also deals with the functioning of optical instruments.

What is Optometry?

Science dedicated to the study and treatment of non-medical visual problems:
  • Refractive errors (myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism)
  • Binocular vision disorders (strabismus, lazy eye)
  • Learning difficulties
  • Accommodation disorders
  • Color vision abnormalities
  • Presbyopia

Optical/Optometric Vocabulary

Dictionary of Optical/Optometric Terms, contact lens parameters, glasses layout, and phrases related to the word "eye".

By the Language and Terminology Service of UPC.

Visual Health

Vision is a complex and fundamental process in school learning. Two-thirds of the information received by students is through the sense of sight. Visual development includes the ability to use both eyes effectively and coordinatedly to identify, interpret, and understand visual information. If the visual system does not develop properly with age, it will interfere with the learning process.


It is necessary to have good visual skills that allow students to read faster and better understand what they read. When there are problems in visual information processing, students need greater concentration effort, which in the long term results in a lack of attention or motivation to read or write and poor reading comprehension. Visual problems arise from poor coordination of the two eyes or a focusing problem that prevents students from continuously and effectively following the words or phrases that make up a text.


Optometrists are professionals who can diagnose and prescribe the most appropriate treatment for any visual problem. A comprehensive examination of the visual system is recommended from the age of 3-4 at least once a year, as prevention, whether symptoms are present or even before they appear.


Answer the following questions, scoring based on whether you experience these symptoms:

1- Never or almost never 2- Sometimes 3- Almost always
  • Do you have blurry and/or double vision when reading or studying?
  • Do you have headaches and/or eye pain when reading or studying?
  • Do you tilt your head, squint, and/or cover one eye when reading or studying?
  • Do you get too close and/or tilt your head excessively when reading or studying?
  • Do you move your head excessively to follow the text?
  • Do you blink excessively, feel itchy eyes, and have to rub them when reading or studying?
  • Do you have difficulty concentrating and/or get distracted when reading? Do you need a lot of time and/or have difficulty doing homework?
  • Do you get distracted while doing homework?
  • Do you have difficulty understanding what you read and/or what is asked in exams?
  • Do you skip lines and/or get lost when reading or writing?
  • Do you confuse similar words and/or invert some letters or words when reading or writing?
  • Do you have difficulty in writing and/or copying from the blackboard?
  • Do you have difficulty in sports activities and/or in orienting yourself in space (confusing right and left)?

14-18 points: your visual system is working fine!

19-26 points: it seems you have difficulties... You could have a visual problem that interferes with your academic performance. We recommend a visit to an optometrist

27-42 points: You should visit an optometrist to understand the cause of your near vision difficulties, which may interfere with your academic performance.


The Environment Matters!

  • What is the place where you study like? Big, small, bright, dark, well-ventilated, closed...?

  • How close do you place yourself to the paper?

  • How do you sit on the chair?

  • How many classmates wear glasses?

  • How much time per day do you spend looking up close, you know, reading, looking at screens, studying?...

  • Do you get tired when studying?... How do you feel after 15 minutes of looking up close?

Primary Prevention


Detecting early situations that may cause visual problems in the study or work environment. At FOOT, we work on three levels:


  1. Performing visual checks annually in primary and secondary schools in our city

  2. Disseminating visual hygiene rules:

    1. Maintaining an appropriate distance when performing close-range visual activities. A minimum distance of 35-40 cm is recommended for reading or writing and 40-45 cm in front of the computer.
    2. Continuously and concentratively working on close-range vision when reading or staring at the computer screen, shifting focus to a distant point to relax the visual system for about 5 minutes. Perform this activity every 30-40 minutes of close work.
    3. Using appropriate lighting levels when performing close-range visual activities. It is recommended to take advantage of sunlight during the day and good direct lighting at night that is three times brighter than ambient lighting, avoiding reflections or shadows on paper or the computer screen.
    4. Watching television at a minimum distance of 3 meters with adequate ambient lighting, avoiding reflections on the screen. It is recommended not to watch television for more than two hours straight.
    5. Avoiding improper postures such as excessive head or trunk tilt when reading, watching TV, or in front of the computer screen. It is recommended to sit with a straight back and not lean on the couch or bed.

3.- Designing and preparing visual training series to prevent the onset of school myopia, focusing problems, binocular coordination problems, reading...